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Martes, 10 Noviembre 2015 12:35



El audiovisual público se encuentra inmerso en un proceso de cambio vinculado fundamentalmente a la situación de crisis económica pero, también, a la necesidad de adaptar una regulación jurídica todavía pensada para otro ecosistema audiovisual a las coordenadas actuales, donde las funciones y misiones de servicio público requieren de una reflexión.

Publicado en Blogs

Entre el 28 de septiembre y el 2 de octubre de 2015, la Confederación Europea de Sindicatos (CES/ETUC) celebró su congreso en París. Patrick Kamenka (Francia) y Paco Audije (España) estuvieron presentes en nombre de la Federación Europea de Periodistas (FEP/EFJ). El texto que sigue a continuación corresponde a la moción que presentaron sobre los medios audiovisuales públicos. Al final, esa moción no fue sometida a debate por cuestiones de procedimiento; pero la publicamos aquí porque quizá tiene el interés de hacer un repaso (breve) de la situación en varios países y en estos momentos.

Publicado en Blogs

El 10 de septiembre, Günther H. Oettinger (comisionado para la Economía Digital y Sociedad) intervino en la 24 Conferencia de Radiodifusores públicos. El Comisario afirmó que los radiodifusores del sector público (PSBs) juegan un papel fundamental y único, tanto desde el punto de vista social como económico. En Europa, son un vehículo para afirmar nuestros valores y el fortalecimiento de nuestra diversidad cultural.
El servicio público audiovisual se dirige a todos los sectores de la población y ofrece a todos el acceso a los programas de radiodifusión; se centra en contenidos de calidad ya sea información, contenidos educativos o de entretenimiento e invierte en la cobertura de noticias regionales y locales. Todo esto contribuye a fomentar el pluralismo a través de todo el sistema de medios de comunicación.oettinger
En pocas palabras, los PSBs tienen como audiencias a ciudadanos, no a consumidores.
Creo firmemente que la convergencia entre lo digital y los medios de comunicación es, ante todo, una excelente oportunidad para PSB, ya que la digitalización multiplica las oportunidades del servicio público RSP para perseguir su misión.

El discurso íntegro puede leerse a continuación:


Ladies and Gentlemen,

It is a pleasure for me to be here with you at the 24th Public Broadcasters International Conference.

I would like to thank ARD and Bayerischer Rundfunk for bringing together such a wealth of interested parties and offering me the opportunity to address the issue of the role of media and Public Service Broadcasting (PSB) in building the digital society.

Public sector broadcasters (PSBs) play a fundamental and unique social and economic role. In Europe, they are a vehicle to affirming our values, preserving our economy and strengthening our cultural diversity.

PSBs target all sections of the population and offer everyone access to broadcasting programs; they focus on quality content be it information, educational content or entertainment and they invest in the coverage of regional and local news. All this contributes to driving up pluralism across the entire media system.

To say it in just few words, for PSBs audiences are citizens, not just consumers.

This is not unique to Europe but occurs globally.

As UNESCO puts it, in many emerging democratic countries in Africa, Latin America, Asia and the Middle East, PSB is seen as essential for the development of a strong and participatory democracy.

In some countries, PSBs are also key for the promotion of minority or less developed languages.

Today, I would like to focus today on the following issues:

How the global audiovisual market is evolving and what this means for the European audiovisual sector .
The key values of the European audiovisual model, in particular as regards PSB, as well as the main challenges facing PSB.
The unique role of PSB, and how I believe their mission should continue being successfully pursued in an ever changing society and economy. Let me start by highlighting the main traits of market evolution and what this means for PSB.
The most pervasive of such developments, as the name of this session recalls, is digitalisation.

Nobody any longer makes the difference between the "digital" life and economy from the "mainstream" economy and life.

We describe the world we live in as "Always On" – a world where we are constantly connected across various devices. Every device, anywhere, is now a TV.

Accordingly, the expectations of the audiences become digital – they want to access content in innovative, personalised and interactive ways.

Convergence brought an abundance and diversity of content, new modes of content production, distribution and access across platforms and devices, and consequently changed patterns of consumer and business behaviour.

More specifically, the following main trends can be observed:

Globally, consumer internet video traffic will be 80% of all consumer Internet traffic in 2019, up from 64% in 2014.
The sale of Internet-connected TV sets worldwide is expected to 173 million items in 2016 as compared to 52 million items in 2011.
Viewing habits are changing.
A very recent report highlighted that in major markets across the world 35% of all TV and video viewing is now watched on-demand. Also, 61% of people globally watch content on their smartphones.

Online advertising is growing at a fast pace. Global expenditure on mobile advertising will top $100 billion worldwide in 2016, which will make 51% of the digital market as a whole.
Content offer is also changing. In Europe, we have observed that European TV channels (including from PSB) are increasingly internationally oriented: in 2013, 1 989 TV channels established in the EU targeted other Member States and third countries (+ 24,6% vs. 2012) and represented 42% of the total national and international channels established in the EU (19,3% in 2012) .
By its own nature, digitalisation also comes in pair with globalisation and scale. These days, we often hear that the Internet or the cyberspace has no borders. This has also an impact on audiovisual media.

What is the impact of these developments on PSBs?

Some fear that these developments pose a challenge for PSB, as new market entrants acquire slices of the audiovisual media market pie. I am optimistic. PSB has been there for decades and has already experienced, and successfully adapted and even embraced new market developments.

I strongly believe that the convergence between digital and the media is first and foremost a terrific opportunity for PSB.

The more devices and services consumers have available, the more the content they will consumed. The figures I mentioned earlier how that the audiovisual media market pie is today a larger one than it used to be.

Technology now allows PSB to reach viewers – or rather, citizens - on a pan-European or global scale. Viewers can enjoy PSB programmes in their living rooms and as they are on-the-go, across devices.

This does not have simply an economic dimension: Digitalisation multiplies the opportunities for PSBs to pursue their mission.

It has a strong impact on the cultural and political life of each and every citizen, who has new opportunities for cultural expression and democratic interaction – what we can call as "participatory democracy".

PSB have proven us that they have well understood this.

They are responding to the digital revolution notably by developing compelling offers on online platforms.

Despite the fact that consumers can now compile their own information and entertainment menu from a very diverse and appealing set of offerings, PSB remains very strong.

For instance, as shown in data published in the summer by the British regulator OFCOM, despite the continued growth in the number of channels available, over half of all television viewing in the UK is still to the five main public service television channels.

I would also like to bring up the example of the Netherlands, where the online portal of a PSB has more users than Netflix – which in that country is also particularly strong.

In Japan, for example, NHK (the national public broadcasting organisation) registered in 2014 an annual revenue of more than $6bn, putting it close to the BBC.

In India, the public service broadcasters – Doordarshan and All India Radio – though not in a monopolistic position anymore, continue to play an important role in the country's media scenario.

Let me know move on to the European audiovisual model and its values. In Europe, we are proud of our so-called "dual" system –combining the presence of PSBs with commercial broadcasters.

This model allows delivering to the citizens an essential public service while maintaining an open market and opportunities for new entrants.

This dual" system model is permeated by key values.

These values, thanks to the solid and comprehensive regulatory framework that is in place, are conveyed by PSB, commercial broadcasters as well as more innovative services delivering audiovisual content, so-called on-demand audiovisual media services.

Please allow me to briefly illustrate these key values to you:

First and foremost, the protection of fundamental rights as also enshrined in the EU Charter. Freedom of expression and information and freedom and pluralism of the media are included there – and so are the protection of a person's private sphere and personal data.

Strong consumer protection, including for vulnerable viewers such as minors or persons with disabilities.

The promotion of cultural and linguistic diversity.

Access to information and universal service, in particular as regards information on events of high interest to the public and news programmes.

In times like this where new business models (crowd-funding, user generated content and citizen journalism, alliances between search engines and newspapers, etc.) have created many sources of information and news, some have raised issues around verification and traceability of news sources.

For many, PSBs are a way to ensure a high level of reliability.

The values of the EU audiovisual model bring direct benefits to the economy as well.
Notably, a free and pluralistic media environment is more appealing for investors, favors competition, and generates positive spill-overs across the whole economy, for example through the revenues coming from advertising. A free and pluralistic media environment ultimately reinforces the EU market and global trade, encouraging media companies to invest beyond borders.

In the specific case of PSBs, it is important to stress that when pursuing their mission they give at once a significant contribution to Europe's economy and to its cultural diversity.

According to estimations from the European Broadcasting Union, Europe's public service media organisations invest approximately EUR 20 billion in content and air a significant amount of domestic and European content.

Ladies and Gentlemen, PBS have played a unique role throughout history.

They have been a reference point for citizens, including in times of war, turmoil and political crises. This happens today as well. The external services of national PSB – such as the BBC World News – reach communities around the world.

Despite being well established and having pursued their mission for decades, PSB continue evolving and adapting, reinventing themselves to meet the challenges of new technology, competition and regulatory change.

This process of adaption comes with intense and sensitive debates revolving around a few issues:

Funding of PSB, which is subject to mixed models. Across EU Member States, PSB can receive money via public funds and/or licences fees paid by the citizens. Other models are in place elsewhere: for example, in the United States, funding is provided through mostly public donations but also through foundations and corporations, and individual donations.
There are heated debates around what is the best model and how should it evolve. Some even question why, in a world in which there is so much media choice, is there any longer a need for PSB funded by licence fees or taxation.

In Europe, there Protocol to the Amsterdam Treaty enshrines the freedom of Member States to design the mission and the architecture of their public service broadcasting systems while giving rules on how public money should be used to support media activities.

This is and remains our reference point in this domain.

The regulatory landscape.
As policy makers, in the European Commission we know well that a regulatory landscape striking the right balance between public interest and market needs is crucial in this domain.

In Europe, we are acting with no delays to make sure that the audiovisual media sector – including PSB - can pursue public interest objectives pursued efficiently and sustainably in the digital age.

Our Digital Single Market strategy will boost our economy by €415 billion per year and create hundreds of thousands of new jobs.

It will also enhance our international outlook.

Where does PSB have to benefit from the Digital Single Market strategy?

First of all, because we are looking into the existing regulatory framework for audiovisual media services in view of its modernisation. We are currently consulting the public – and you all are invited to contribute – on how the current rules on issues such as advertising, protection of minors, media freedom and pluralism, cultural diversity have delivered on our objectives and on if and how such rules should be enhanced in the future.

Given that protecting the public interest is also one of the main goals of the existing regulatory framework, we are also assessing whether specific rules should exist in order to ensure that audiences can easily find and access public interest content.

Secondly, because we will reform copyright including as regards overcome existing barriers to accessing content across borders. In doing so, we will refrain from imposing pan-European licences.

Thirdly, because we will review the rules applicable to copyright licensing in relation to distribution of TV programmes over satellite and cable networks. In this context, we are gathering the views of the public on what could be the impact of a possible extension of the existing law to broadcasting services provided over the Internet.

Fourthly, because we are kicking off a comprehensive assessment of the role that Internet platforms and intermediaries play in the economy. This also applies to the platforms offering audiovisual content over the Internet and will deliver more clarity as to the business models and their impact on the values that the EU strives to promote. I know that this debate is not only taking place in Europe.

Ladies and Gentlemen, throughout history PSB have played a unique role.

We need to work out together, at the global level, a future-oriented model of PSB, which is capable of matching an environment of technological and governance complexity with the needs of global citizenship.

I am confident that together we can make sure that PSB continue pursuing its mission in an ever changing economic and social climate.

Publicado en Noticias seccion
Jueves, 11 Junio 2015 17:03

ON AIR [n]ER[i]T

"Toda persona tiene derecho a la libertad de expresión. Este derecho comprende la libertad de opinión y la libertad de recibir o de comunicar informaciones o ideas, sin que pueda haber injerencia de autoridades públicas y sin consideración de fronteras. El presente artículo no impide que los Estados sometan a las empresas de radiodifusión, de cinematografía o de televisión, a un régimen de autorización previa."
Artículo 10 CEDH

Setecientos treinta días. Veinticuatro meses. Dos años, en definitiva. El apagón del servicio público de radiotelevisión heleno, ERT, llegó un día como hoy en 2013. En palabras del Primer Ministro, Samaras, debía cerrarse "por falta de transparencia y por ser un gasto inasumible". Las protestas de sindicatos y grupos de interés no tardaron en llegar ni cesaron cuando una decisión marco la reanudación de las emisiones de radio y televisión, pero a través de una nueva corporación.

Publicado en Blogs


La radiotelevisión pública griega ERT ha reanudado sus emisiones este jueves tras regresar buena parte de su antigua plantilla, justo el mismo día en que se cumplen dos años de su cierre fulminante que, durante varios meses, convirtió a Grecia en el único país europeo sin un medio de comunicación público.

La reapertura de la ERT era una de las promesas electorales de Syriza.

Las emisiones de ERT han comenzado a las seis de la mañana (03.00 GMT) con el himno nacional, al que le siguió un programa informativo matutino de cuatro horas, con equipo y diseño renovados.

Además, han regresado a sus puestos de trabajo unos 1.600 empleados que tenían contratos indefinido cuando fueron despedidos al clausurar la radio y la televisión

Publicado en Noticias seccion
Jueves, 28 Mayo 2015 12:30

La reforma de la RAI

La RAI (la Radiotelevisión pública italiana) acaba de celebrar hace poco su 60 aniversario, ya que comenzaron sus emisiones televisivas en 1954. A diferencia de España, en tan sólo tres años se consiguió que la señal llegara a todo el territorio contribuyendo de forma decisiva a la formación del sentimiento unitario de la nación a la vez que se convertía en una gran industria cultural que difundía la lengua y cultura italiana, pues no olvidemos que en los años 50 existía una alta tasa de analfabetismo en ese país.

Publicado en Blogs

"Cuando Margaret Thatcher ejercía como Primera Ministra, hubo un período en el que los halcones que ella había puesto en el gobierno le pedían que privatizara la BBC. Ella estaba en contra del canon (*que pagan todos los británicos por el servicio audiovisual público). Lo calificaba de "impuesto retrógrado".
"Thatcher repetía que la BBC estaba contra ella porque que era un medio izquierdista; pero nunca dio pasos para acabar con la BBC, aunque siguiera criticándola durante sus años en el poder". Éstas palabras de nuestro colega John Barsby (periodista de la BBC) forman parte de la conferencia inaugural que pronunció en la Universidad de Valencia (España) el pasado día 8 de mayo, en un acto organizado por el Global Network for Rights and Development (GNRD).

Barsby no solo es un veterano del periodismo radiofónico, también preside el Broadcasting Experts Group de la Federación Europea de Periodistas (la rama europea de la FIP). En esas palabras se mide la visión recíproca (y el respeto) entre dos instituciones fundamentales del Reino Unido: su gobierno (de cualquier signo) y la British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), que funciona –no siempre, pero con frecuencia- como contrapoder social.

Publicado en Blogs
Martes, 13 Mayo 2014 10:38

Ignacio Ramonet disertará en el EMPAL 2014


El Empal se hará los días jueves 15 y viernes 16 de mayo en Mar del Plata en el marco del Mercado de Industrias Culturales del Sur (MicSur) con la participación de profesionales de la comunicación de 13 países de a región.

El objetivo de las jornadas, de las que participarán 32 radios y televisoras públicas latinoamericanas, será debatir temas de interés común como el rol de los medios públicos en la región, así como compartir experiencias y poner en funcionamiento una plataforma de intercambio de contenidos audiovisuales a nivel regional.

Entre los países representados en las mismas se encuentran Cuba, México, Brasil, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Perú, Paraguay, Uruguay y Venezuela, informaron los organizadores.

De las actividades destinadas al público con entrada libre y gratuita,se destacan la conferencia magistral del periodista español Ignacio Ramonet, sobre el rol de los medios públicos en el siglo XXI, el jueves a las 18, y la charla "Hacia una comunicación pública para la igualdad" que el viernes a las 17 ofrecerá la investigadora Rita Segato.

En el plenario, los responsables de los medios junto con especialistas y académicos internacionales compartirán mesas de debate destinadas al análisis de las audiencias de radio y televisión, sus mediciones, nuevas formas de participación y diálogo con la ciudadaní­a a partir de Internet entre otros temas.

El Empal es un espacio destinado a profundizar la relación que canales y radios públicas vienen construyendo desde hace varios años y que tuvo como hitos más recientes la segunda reunión de televisoras realizada en Buenos Aires en junio de 2013 y la cuarta de radios, que se desarrolló en noviembre del mismo año en Ecuador.

Publicado en Noticias seccion

Hace menos de dos años, conocí en Budapest a Balázs Nagy Navarro, quien hasta su despido fue jefe de información internacional en la radiotelevisión pública de Hungría (Magyar Televízió, MTVA).

Desde hace casi 900 días, Nagy y otros colegas mantienen una protesta frente a la sede de la MTVA. No obstante, no se trata de su caso personal únicamente, sino que concierne a las libertades de todos y a la defensa de los sistemas audiovisuales públicos de todos los ciudadanos de la Unión Europea.

Publicado en Blogs

Varios centenares de periodistas de toda España se han manifestado este jueves en Madrid, convocados por CCOO, UGT, CGT y la Federación de Sindicatos de Periodistas, en defensa de los medios públicos y para protestar contra las medidas de privatización emprendidas en algunos entes autonómicos. Entre los asistentes había delegados sindicales y miembros del comité de empresa de Canal Sur, de TV3, Telemadrid, TVE y Canal Nou.

Publicado en Noticias seccion


Teledetodos es un Grupo de investigación que agrupa a profesionales, académicos, investigadores y a todos aquellos ciudadanos o colectivos interesados en un auténtico servicio público de comunicación audiovisual y multimedia. Este sitio pretende ser un foro de referencia y documentación para todos los interesados en el sector de la comunicación y sus contenidos y publicaciones están abiertos a la participación ciudadana.

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